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ARPN Journal of Science and Technology >> Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2017

ARPN Journal of Science and Technology

Effect of Feeding Yellow Maize, White Sorghum and Pearl Millet as Energy Sources on Mineral Intake, Retention and Utilisation by Guinea Fowl Under Intensive Management System

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Author S C Chiripasi, J C Moreki, S J Nsoso and M Letso
ISSN 2225-7217
On Pages 124-139
Volume No. 3
Issue No. 1
Issue Date February 01, 2013
Publishing Date February 01, 2013
Keywords Bone mineral compositions, bone physical dimensions, cereal grains, mineral intake, mineral retention


The effects of feeding yellow maize, white sorghum and peal millet as energy sources on mineral intake, retention and utilisation in guinea fowl up to 16 weeks of age were investigated. Two hundred and forty day old keets were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each having four replicates (n=6/replicate). The four treatments were yellow maize, white sorghum, pearl millet and a commercial broiler diet (control) fed at starter, grower and finisher phases. At 6, 12 and 16 weeks of age, blood and faecal samples were collected from three randomly selected birds from each replicate and analysed for minerals. At 16 weeks of age, birds were sacrificed and the left tibiae collected for bone physical dimensions and mineral composition. Meat samples were collected from the thighs and decomposed by microwave digestion method for analysis of various minerals. Data were regarded as a split plot design with four dietary treatments and analysed using the General Linear Model Procedures in Statistical Analysis System. There were no significant differences among bone length and width of birds fed sorghum, millet, maize or control diets at 6 and 16 weeks of age. Birds fed millet based diet had significantly higher bone weights (9.350.13g) than birds on the other three treatment diets. Bone Na, Mg and K contents decreased by 26%, 27% and 25%, respectively from 6 to 12 weeks of age and thereafter remained constant. Feeding a diet containing millet resulted in higher bone P (124195.661459.25 mg/L) than those fed other treatment diets. Birds fed diet containing sorghum had the lowest Zn (232.6611.16 mg/L), Mn (18.371.31mg/L), Cu (4.490.66 mg/L) and Fe (124.618.44 mg/L) bone mineral contents compared to those fed other treatment diets. Calcium, Na, K and Mg contents in the meat decreased over time. Birds fed millet diets had significantly higher blood Ca (291.5018.24 mg/L) than birds fed other treatment diets. The P and K contents of blood obtained from birds fed control diet were significantly lower than blood obtained from the other treatment diets at 16 weeks of age. Average daily mineral intakes significantly increased from 6 to 12 weeks of age. However, no significant differences were noted in the average daily mineral intakes of K, Zn and Mn from 12 to 16 weeks of age. The high mineral intakes observed at 6 weeks of age were driven by the need for growth in keets. Percentage Na and K retentions did not differ significantly between birds fed sorghum, millet and maize diets. These results suggest that pearl millet and white sorghum can replace maize in guinea fowl diets without negatively affecting mineral intake, retention and utilization. Further studies should be carried out to evaluate the effect of millet, sorghum and maize grains on meat sensory characteristics and bone strength of guinea fowl.

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