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ARPN Journal of Science and Technology >> Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2017

ARPN Journal of Science and Technology


Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of the Fruit and Leaves of Kigelia Africana (Bignoniaciae)

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Author Ipav Selumun Solomon, Ibok Nne Umoh, Dasofunjo Kayode
ISSN 2225-7217
On Pages 123-128
Volume No. 4
Issue No. 2
Issue Date March 01, 2014
Publishing Date March 01, 2014
Keywords DPPH, flavonoids, Free radical scavenger, Kigelia Africana, Phytochemicals



Abstract

This study set out to compare the phytochemical constituents in the leaves and fruits of Kigelia Africana, and determine their free radical scavenging activities. The fruit and leaves of KA collected from Okeigbo, Ondo State, Nigeria, were dried and extracted with methanol. Phytochemical screening was carried out according to standard procedures. The decrease in the visible absorbance of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) on plant extract was used to determine the free radical scavenging activity. The mean inhibitory concentration (IC50), that is, the concentration of extract needed to reduce the initial absorbance of DPPH by 50% was determined statistically. Spectrophotometric methods were used to determine proanthocyanidin, flavonoids and total phenolic contents. The Phytochemical results indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, steroids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides in both the fruit and leaves, while anthraquinones, saponins, phlobatannins and terpenoids were absent in both plant parts of K. Africana. IC50 values of vitamin E and KA fruit were found to be 0.01 and 0.08 respectively while IC50 value of KA Leaves was not traceable. Total phenolic, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents were 2.28, 2.1 and 0.57mg/g of powdered plant material for KA fruit, and 1.104, 0.147 and 0.022mg/g of powdered plant material for KA leaves as gallic acid, rutin and catechin equivalents respectively. KA fruits are far more potent as a free radical scavenger compared to the leaves.


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