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ARPN Journal of Science and Technology >> Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2017

ARPN Journal of Science and Technology


Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Pallikaranai Marsh - An Urban Wetland Chennai Prime Suburbs, Tamilnadu

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Author Jayanthi.M, K.Padmavati
ISSN 2225-7217
On Pages 745-751
Volume No. 4
Issue No. 12
Issue Date January 01, 2015
Publishing Date January 01, 2015
Keywords Wetland, municipal solid waste, dump yard, groundwater, water quality, heavy metals, pre monsoon, post monsoon



Abstract

Wetlands play an important role in improving the water quality by filtering sediments and nutrients from surface water. The availability and quality of water always have played an important role in determining quality of life. Water quality is closely linked to water use and to the state of economic development. Chennai is among the worst affected in water quality because of its ever-expanding urban population demands for more freshwater. Due to population growth and rising income have resulted in a rapid growth in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rate of the city. Waste generation per day has been doubled during the last decade. The present study is the area in and around Perungudi dump yard in the Pallikaranai Marsh, south of Chennai is in operation since 1986 and has increased tremendously between year 1990 to 2010.The dump yard is low lying area, closes to the sea level, poorly drained and consists of an extensive area of marshy land permanently wet and seasonally inundated. The current dumping rate is about 2,000 tons /day. The present work is undertaken to study the seasonal variation of groundwater around the Perungudi dump yard by analyzing the physico chemical characteristics, and heavy metals. The toxic heavy metals entering the ecosystem may lead to geo-accumulation, bio accumulation and bio-magnification. Heavy metals like Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd and other trace elements are important for proper functioning of biological systems and their deficiency or excess could lead to a number of disorders. The extent of contamination of groundwater quality due to landfill waste depends upon a number of factors like leachate composition, rainfall, depth and distance of the well from the pollution source. The contaminant concentrations tend to decrease during the post monsoon seasons and increase during the pre-monsoon seasons in most of the samples due to dilution effect. However, in the unprotected landfill sites, due to migration of contaminants from landfill site, post monsoon values might be higher than the pre monsoon values. Some of the samples near the land fill sites shows higher in the post monsoon than pre monsoon. This is due to the migration effect of the contaminant. The heavy metal concentration in the Marsh showed significant variations from one sampling point to other. The maximum concentrations of heavy metals were found near the Perungudi Dump yard. Garbage dumping and burning in the middle and along the roads causes severe pollution (Jayaprakash, 2010). Elevated trace metal concentrations may lead to toxic effects or bio-magnification in the aquatic environment. There should be ban in discharging sewage or industrial effluents into the Pallikaranai Marsh. The dump yard in Perungudi should be closed and dumping of municipal solid wastes should be in the outskirts away from the human habitant. Stringent management actions should be taken in order to protect the ecological stability of the wetland.


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