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ARPN Journal of Science and Technology >> Volume 7, Issue 2, November 2017

ARPN Journal of Science and Technology


Drinking Water Suitability from the Karaga Dam in the Northern Region, Ghana

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Author T. A, Amantoge, S. Aikins
ISSN 2225-7217
On Pages 1242-1246
Volume No. 3
Issue No. 12
Issue Date January 01, 2014
Publishing Date January 01, 2014
Keywords Microbial, Drinking water, physicho-chemical.



Abstract

The study was conducted on physico-chemical parameters and microbial quality of water from the Karaga dam in Northern region of Ghana from July, 2011 to August, 2012. The study was aimed at assessing its suitability and safety for drinking purposes. Two stations were selected for the study based on where the community fetches water and the type of containers used for fetching the water. Two samples were collected per month from both stations from March, 2012 to June, 2012. The parameters analyzed included pH, Temperature and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were determined using Jenway 4520 conductivity meter. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) were determined by the Winkler method. Nutrients measured included nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), sulphate (SO42-) and Sodium (Na+) which were determined spectrophotometrically. The microbial quality (total coliform and faecal coliform) parameters were determined using membrane filtration method. The results obtained included mean total coliforms ranged between 320 and 4110 CFU/100 ml, faecal coliform 128 and 1540 CFU/100 ml which were above the Ghana Standards Board and World Health Organisation guidelines for drinking water. This could be due to direct defaecation and urination by wild and domestic animals that come to drink water, the donkeys used to fetch water and human excreta washed from the surrounding by rain into the dam. However, the microbial numbers were not significantly different (P>0.05) from station one and two. Due to the high numbers of total and faecal coliform counts of the water, some form of treatment like boiling could be done before drinking. With the exception of Dissolved Oxygen values which were higher than the “no effect” range of 0–0.3 mg/l for drinking water by WHO, all other physicho-chemical parameters and nutrient of the water fell below the stipulated range of Ghana Standards Board and World Health Organisation for drinking water.
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