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ARPN Journal of Science and Technology >> Volume 7, Issue 1, January 2017

ARPN Journal of Science and Technology


Characterization and Quantitative Indicators of Groundwater Quality in Okrika, Rivers State, Nigeria

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Author Nwankwoala. H.O, Marshal. H.I , Oborie. E
ISSN 2225-7217
On Pages 868-881
Volume No. 3
Issue No. 8
Issue Date September 01, 2013
Publishing Date September 01, 2013
Keywords Groundwater, hydro chemical facies, aquifers, quality, Okrika



Abstract

The study aims at appraising the suitability of the water for domestic purposes. The pH values as recorded in the area range from 6.2 7.7 with a mean of 6.9, indicating that the groundwater is weakly acidic to alkaline. The low acidity of groundwater in the area probably results from industrial wastewaters. The electrical conductivity values ranges from 12.25 92.7 (S/cm) with an exception at George-Ama (Location 6) with 486.0S/cm. Apart from this location all others fall within the WHO stipulated range of 150S/cm. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) ranges between 6.12 237.0mg/l against the WHO standard of 250mg/l. BH 1, BH 3, BH 5, BH 6, BH 8, BH 11, BH 12, BH 14 and BH 16, all exceed 250mg/l. The high concentration is also reflected in the conductivity of the area with BH 1, BH 3, BH 5, BH 6, and BH 11, all showing increasing conductivity with increasing TDS. Total suspended solids (TSS) ranges from 0.00mg/l 58.00mg/l. Chloride concentration ranges between 18.00mg/l 300mg/l. Chloride concentration above 40mg/l in groundwater is an indication of saltwater intrusion BH 1, BH 2, BH 6, BH 8 and BH 13 show values higher than 40mg/l with BH 2 (Gream-Ama) having 300mg/l. Apart from BH 2, all other areas fall within the WHO standards of 250mg/lIron values ranges from 0.01 to 2.50mg/l. This falls below the standard of 0.3mg/l, except in Ogoloma (BH 4) and Ogbogbo (BH 5) with 2.50mg/l and 0.3mg/l, respectively. The average total hardness recorded in the area is 31mg/l, this is indicative of soft groundwater in the area. The area has a low static water level and minor records of salinity, which does not render the water unsuitable. A comparison of the results with internationally accepted standards shows that the water is suitable for drinking and other domestic purposes and for agricultural and industrial purposes. From the Pipers trilinear diagram of the concentrations of the major cations and anions in groundwater samples, the hydrochemical facies has been delineated as Sulphate Chloride - Calcium Biocarbonate (Cl-Ca-HCO3-). It is suggested that the aquifers should be protected against pollution and monitoring of groundwater quality on a regular basis to identify any future degradation of the water in the area.


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